The Mesopotamian Concept of the Universe
An – Heaven, the domain of the gods and goddesses, ruled by An, god of the sky
Ĝiš-ḫe – Sky/Firmament, ruled by Enlil
Ki – Earth, where humanity lives
Mountainous regions which encircle the earth – Called “Nagû” in Akkadian which simply means region. Little is known about these beyond their appearance on maps and vague descriptions given in various myths. They sit in the corners of the world and are the place from which the four winds blow. Additionally, the gate of An and the gate of Utu leading into Heaven and Kur respectively are found within the mountains.
Abzu – Primordial freshwater ocean, ruled by Enki
Kur – The Netherworld, where the dead live. Ruled by Ereshkigal
Black, Jeremy, and Anthony Green. Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: an Illustrated Dictionary. University of Texas Press, 1992.
Finkel, Irving L. The Ark before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood. Anchor Books, 2015.
Halloran, John Alan. “Sumerian Lexicon: Version 3.0.” Sumerian Lexicon, Sumerian.org, 28 Aug. 2018, www.sumerian.org/sumerlex.htm.